Principles of Diet

  • Calories
  • Protein
  • Water
  • Sodium
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Low-protein snacks

Adequate Caloric Intake: For individuals with kidney issues, inadequate calorie intake can lead to decreased energy levels, weight loss, and the body breaking down muscle for energy. Muscle breakdown releases toxins into the body, and if toxins accumulate, it can result in loss of appetite. Ultimately, this can lead to worsened nutritional status and accelerate the deterioration of kidney function. Therefore, consuming sufficient calories is crucial to maintaining better nutritional status, especially when following a low-protein diet. It helps prevent muscle breakdown and supports overall health.

Moderate Protein Intake: After consuming protein, the body metabolizes it and produces waste products like urea, which need to be excreted through the kidneys. When kidney function is impaired, excessive urea accumulation in the blood can lead to uremia. Therefore, individuals with chronic kidney disease are often advised to consume a lower amount of protein compared to the general population to slow down the progression of kidney dysfunction. However, consuming too little protein can also lead to a decline in kidney function. It's important to strike a balance. It's recommended that individuals with kidney issues consult with a registered dietitian to determine the appropriate amount of protein intake that meets their nutritional needs while supporting kidney health.


The food exchange table provides conversions of nutritional content and portion sizes between different foods, allowing people to better control their diet, especially in situations where certain nutrients need to be restricted, such as for kidney disease patients. Here is a summary of the content you mentioned in the food exchange table The portion conversion of beans, fish, eggs, and meats can be referred to the food exchange table provided by the Health Promotion Administration in Taiwan.


Hydration: In general, individuals with chronic kidney disease do not need to specifically restrict water intake. Sufficient water consumption also helps the kidneys eliminate waste from the body, so fluid intake is similar to that of healthy individuals. However, when there is a decrease in urine output, edema, or heart failure, water restriction may be necessary. The recommended fluid intake for those restricted in water is calculated as follows: Fluid Intake = Previous day's urine output + 500~700 ml Alternatively, the principle is to avoid edema, and daily body weight changes should not exceed 0.5 kilograms.

Protein: For people with chronic kidney disease, protein intake needs to be controlled because the metabolism of protein generates waste products, such as urea, that the kidneys must filter out. Limiting protein intake can help delay the progression of kidney failure. However, too low protein intake can also lead to worsening kidney function. It's recommended for kidney disease patients to consult with a registered dietitian to determine an appropriate level of protein intake.

Phosphorus: As kidney function declines, the balance between calcium and phosphorus in the body is affected. Accumulation of excess phosphorus due to reduced kidney function can lead to complications such as bone and vascular issues. It's important to control blood phosphorus levels and avoid high-phosphorus foods. These foods include whole grains, dairy products, organ meats, nuts, and certain processed foods. Maintaining normal blood phosphorus levels is crucial for overall health.

Potassium: Potassium is an essential electrolyte in the body, but its balance can be disrupted when kidney function is compromised. High potassium levels can lead to various health issues. Some foods high in potassium include soups, broths, meats, nuts, certain fruits, and beverages like coffee and fruit juices. It's important to follow medical advice and guidelines on potassium intake, especially for those with reduced urine output or certain medical conditions.


Please note that these translations are provided for informational purposes, and specific dietary recommendations should be tailored to individual health conditions and under the guidance of medical professionals.